The world enjoys so many devices for various purposes today, with their relevance spread across human existence. Before the advent of the PCB, connections from point to point through wiring were difficult. The Printed circuit board gained relevance during World War II. It then evolved after its allowance into the public domain in 1948.
The electronic industry took the lead in adopting its usage immediately. After this, others such as the medical, telecommunications, automotive, and computer sectors dived into taking advantage of the new invention.
The printed circuit board is available in almost every device for daily use by everyone. The PCB is inbuilt to connect electronic components. You can make this from a non-conductive material with pads and lines. You can carve it out of copper sheets.
There are varying types of printed circuit boards. This is dependent on the purpose for its production, specification, and materials put together for use. Simple electrical appliances carry a single layer of PCBs. Gadgets with hardware have more than a single layer up to twelve.
What is Single Sided PCB?
The single sided pcb is a unique type. It is also called the single layer PCB or 1 layer PCB. The easy-to-build PCB has one side of the board that accommodates the circuit of non-conductive materials, while the other contains electronic components mechanically connected.
Single sided pcb is the origin of all various types of printed circuit boards. It came into the limelight during the 1950s” and still maintains its dominance in the market. It has one layer of conductive materials suitable for low-density designs. Unprocessed materials are useful in a single sided pcb. This is to isolate copper on the surface foil conductive layer.
The Single-sided printed circuit board is one of the most common PCBs produced. This is due to its simple design setup. It is seen as one of the best choices for various applications. This is because of its significant advantages to manufacturers. These include:
- The cost of production is low due to its simple design. High-end pieces of machinery are not necessary as in other types of PCBs. Bulk order reduces cost and makes the PCB cost-effective.
- The production process is less demanding, and the problems encountered are fewer; this allows for production at a fast pace.
- Repairing the single layer PCB is much simpler than the double or multilayer PCBs. Testing is perfect with the help of AOI or x-rays.
- It is quick to understand by various manufacturers. This is due to its popularity while it offers good performance and durability.
The single sided pcbs are in household appliances and are in complex devices. 1 layer PCB consists of four components. These components are linked together through tracks and pads of conductive material. These components are the substrates, copper foil/sheeting, solder mask, and silkscreen with its unique functions on the PCB.
Components of a Single Sided PCB (1 Layer PCB)
Substrate: The substrate material is at the base of the PCB. It is fiberglass sheeting that gives solidity and firmness to prevent damages to the PCB.
Copper foil/sheeting: This provides the routes to which power flows from different components within the PCB. Copper transmits signals, and it is highly conductive.
Solder Mask: It shields the PCB from corrosion and oxidation, which aids the high performance of the PCB
Silkscreen: This is the layer where information and references are placed for users to access. Information includes warning symbols, marks, component values, and test points. This is for identification and to be used as appropriate.
The 1 layer PCB is a type of printed circuit board assembled through an overlay of heatproof materials on one side. The other side accommodates electronic elements put together mechanically.
Its fabrication process includes cutting, cleaning, drilling, plated through holes, panel plating, photolithography, copper plating, coating, etching, inspection, solder mask, and post soldering.
The 1 layer PCB board is called a single sided pcb. It contains one layer of transmitting materials.
Single Sided PCB Board
This type of board has its components fixed on one of its sides. Other conductors get connected to the other side. The amount of layers is the amount of copper layers available on the PCB. A PCB that has a singular conductive layer in creating a circuit can be called a Single-sided Layer PCB.
The single sided PCB board is popular. It has a slim layer laminated with copper. The copper-clad consists of sheets of prepreg, laminated with heat and pressure. So many applications give preference to the single-layer because of its simplicity and its unique conductive layer.
Single Sided PCB Board: Types
Single Sided Rigid PCB Board
This type of single sided board comes with hard materials like fiberglass, which resist circuits from breaking and bending. The single rigid PCB is present in different devices like power supplies, calculators, LED lighting, and many more.
Single Sided Flexible PCB Board
This is the direct opposite of the single-sided rigid type of PCB. Its composition comprises flexible materials such as plastic material. It holds advantages over the single sided rigid pub, though it has a higher cost of fabrication.
Single Sided Rigid Flex PCB Board
This type of single sided board is for circuits requiring high-frequency in gigahertz. Polyphenylene oxide or Teflon material forms its components. In choosing such high frequency, water absorption, thermal expansion, as well as dielectric loss are factors to be given adequate considerations.
Single Sided High Frequency PCB Board
This is another type of PCB made from a blend of fiberglass and plastic. The two materials are merged into one layer holding a superior edge over the single layer flexible PCB and rigid PCB in a way that it reduces its size and weight.
Single Sided Aluminum PCB Board
This single sided board is made from the aluminum substrate, though it has close similarities in design to the copper back PCB. The aluminum substrate can then be transferred through heat from thermally insulating material then to the back.
Single Sided PCB Stackup Board
In this single sided board, stackups are in two layers, which are the conductive and base layers. However, if there is an inclusion of the solder mask, surface finish, and silkscreen, the layers increase automatically.
Conductive Layer: The only conductive layer in the single sided pcb is copper. It gives the signal and transfers electrons. Copper is cost-effective and realizable against other materials such as Gold and silver that can serve the purpose.
Base Layer: The base layer accommodates various components such as copper, silkscreen on the PCBs. Different base materials are available for users to pick, depending on each characteristic and feature to suit your application.
The most in demand materials for single sided layer PCBs include the following:
Single Sided PCB Design
The Printed circuit board is visible in every electronic device, from big machinery to the smallest device such as wristwatches. Circuits, small and fragile components condense in the PCB, reduce the sizes of the device. The performance of your project hinges on the quality of materials put together in producing the PCB.
In combating the possibility of project failure due to PCB materials and design, understanding the standard requirements on characteristics of different PCB components and how viable their choices remain non-negotiable.
This article will discuss acceptable standards, materials, and principles that guide the selection of PCB substrates.
Single Sided PCB Design: Classification of Materials
There are two main categories in which the board materials are divided. These include rigid substrate materials and flexible substrate materials.
Rigid Printed Circuit Board Material
The popular substrate material for the rigid PCB is copper-clad laminate (CCL). This invention is from reinforcing material. Pure copper is a better option because of its high conductivity, and it easily glues to the board. In getting the laminate ready for use, while the PCB maintains pure insulation without any conducting paths, the following steps are vital:
The laminate must get dried before it is cut into sizes of choice to fit into the design. The pieces are then laminated into blanks while the copper foil is pressed on the PCB using high temperatures. The thickness used is 35-50/ma, and the copper-clad laminate standard thickness is 1.0mm, 1.5mm, and 2.0mm.
Common Flexible PCB materials
Flexible PCB materials are materials used for single sided pcb. It is because flat PBCs are not available on all devices. PCBs come with irregular shapes and designs, which necessitate the choice of flexible PCB materials.
They are suitable for different devices; they can be bent and folded without losing the current and conductivity function it is to perform on the PCB. These materials are polyester film, polyimide film, and fluorinated ethylene propylene film.
Types of Materials used for Single Sided PCB design
Three major types of materials are better for the PCB design.
FR-4: This material is composed of a glass adhesive laminate sheet. It has a fiberglass layer with the capacity to inhibit flames and resist water from gaining access. It also provides a stable layout to the PCB. These properties make the FR4 printed circle board acceptable material.
PTFE (Teflon): Its unique attributes of being suitable for high speed and high-frequency applications, coupled with flexibility, and patience endeared Teflon to the hearts of PCB designers. It can resist flames with visible strength, and it gives temperature balance.
Metal:PCBs products with a metal base are durable. Copper, aluminum, iron, etc., are materials used in designing a PCB. They allow the combination of components which gives automatic durability.
Each material used to design and invent single sided pcb gives different advantages and disadvantages. The selection of materials should be result-oriented.
Factors to look into when selecting PCB Materials for Single Sided PCB Design
In selecting the right and perfect PCB material for the single sided pcb design, the following few factors are vital:
Heat Resistance: This is a vital requirement for all PCB designs.
Glass Transition Temperature: High glass transition temperature material is a perfect material for fighting meltdowns and bends as a result of high temperature.
Dielectric constant and losses: The PCB material of choice should have a substance that transmits electric forces without conduction. It will aid insulation and allow for an anticipated result.
Degree of bending: A low degree of bending is suitable for any design of PCBs to enable durability.
Single Sided PCB Design Process
To design a single layer PCB, follow the steps below;
Construct a circuit diagram. This starts with assembling various electrical symbols for the design, sketch the circuits in lines, pull and place the image for connection and apply line hops if required.
Draw a representation of the elements of the PCB design. You can achieve this by using abstract graphic symbols with the aid of KiCad.
Sketch a board layout by converting a schematic design to PCB by synchronizing the design, import the design data to the PCB through the schematic capture tool, and define the layer Stack.
Layout the various components in steps, grouping each by its function, safeguard elements from a high heated area, arrange board to wire connectors close to the edge, and create space for copper traces
Connect components on the PCB board by fixing electronic and electrical elements through soldering.Create standard electrical connections on the terminals in a controlled manner.
Applications of a Single Sided PCB
The single-layer PCBs are popular amongst electronic applications, with their coverage cut across simple to medium and complex circuits.
These are some of the applications that the single sided layer PCBs are present
- Camera systems
- Coffee makers
- Solid state drives
- LED lighting
- Sensor products
- Packaging equipment
- Power supplies
By now, you must have gained vast knowledge about single sided pcb. Remember that there are so many factors you should consider before choosing one. Also work with top manufacturers to get the best quality.